Thursday, January 3, 2013

Purification (Taharah) - Bathing, Tayammum, Wiping


Mandatory acts of Bathing

Three acts are mandatory during Bathing:
1.       Rinsing out the mouth. (See footnote 33.)
2.       Sniffing water into the nose. (See footnote 34.)
3.       Making water reach all body parts such that not a single point on the body remains dry.

Traditions of Bathing

The following acts are Prophet’s traditions during Bathing, so a Bather should observe them to make his Bathing perfect. The Bather should:
1.       say Bismilläh-ir Raḧmän-ir Raḧïm[1] before starting bathing.
2.       should form the intention of Bathing to attain Purification.
3.       wash his hands up to his wrists in the beginning as he does during Ablution.
4.       should wash off Filth, if present on his body or cloth, before Bathing.
5.       should perform Ablution before Bathing. However, he should postpone the washing of feet to the end if he is standing in a low level land where water collects up.
6.       pour down water over his entire body thrice.
7.       pour down water first over his head, then over his right shoulder and finally over his right shoulder.
8.       scrub his body.
9.       wash his body uninterruptedly so that the next organ is washed before the previous dries up.
·         If the person enters flowing water, stays there and scrubs his body, then he has completely performed the Traditions of Bathing.
·         If he enters a water-body which has the status of flowing water, e.g. large pond, then also the ruling will be same as above.

Kinds of Bathing

There are three kinds of Bathing:
1.       Mandatory
2.       Traditional
3.       Desirable

When does Bathing become mandatory?

Bathing is Compulsory in the following cases:
1.       when the person is in a state of major de jure Filth. (See footnote 22.)
2.       when a woman’s menstrual phase ends.
3.       when a woman’s phase of postnatal discharge ends.
4.       when a Muslim dies, it is mandatory upon the living Muslims to Bathe him.

Footnote 22 (in the pdf version of Simple Fiqh) says:
Major de jure filth: A man or woman enters into this state when seminal fluid shoots out of him/her in spurts in a state of sexual stimulation while sleeping or awake. Similarly, if the points of circumcision of male and female genitals touch each other, both the man and the woman enter into this state.

When is Bathing a Tradition?

Bathing is a Tradition (Sunnah) on four occasions:
1.       for Friday Saläh
2.       for the Salähs of the two Ï̀ds.
3.       for Iḧräm
4.       for a Major Pilgrim[2] at Àrafah after the sun moves down from the zenith.

When is Bathing Desirable?

Bathing is Desirable on the following occasions:
1.       on the night preceding 15th Sha`bän.
2.       on the night of Power[3].
3.       for the special Salähs of solar eclipse and lunar eclipse.
4.       for the special supplication for rain.
5.       at the time of panic.
6.       when the atmosphere darkens suddenly (due to rain, storm, etc.).
7.       when strong gale is blowing.
8.       before wearing a new garment.
9.       when a person repents from a sin.
10.   when a person returns from a journey.
11.   when a person intends to enter Al Madïnah, the illuminated city.
12.   when a person intends to enter Makkah, the elevated city.
13.   when staying at Muz̈dalifah in the morning of 10 Zul Ḧijjah.
14.   for the visiting circumambulation[4] of the Ka`bah.
15.   for a person who bathes a dead body.
16.   after cupping.
17.   for a person who recovers from insanity, swoon or inebriation.
18.   for a person who embraces Isläm while in a pure state.
But if he was in a state of major de jure Filth while embracing Isläm, then Bathing is mandatory for him.


The command of Tayammum in the Shari'ah

Alläh said in the Holy Quran:
وَاِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَّرْضٰٓى اَوْ عَلٰي سَفَرٍ اَوْ جَاۗءَ اَحَدٌ مِّنْكُمْ مِّنَ الْغَاۗىِٕطِ اَوْ لٰمَسْتُمُ النِّسَاۗءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوْا مَاۗءً فَتَيَمَّمُوْا صَعِيْدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوْا بِوُجُوْهِكُمْ وَاَيْدِيْكُمْ ۭ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُوْرًا     43؀ (القرآن ٤٣:٤)
If you are sick, or in travel, or if one of you has come after relieving himself, or you have had contact with women, and you find no water, go for some clean dust and wipe your faces and hands (with it). Surely, Alläh is Most-Pardoning, Most-Forgiving.
Alläh’s Prophet said:
فُضِّلْنَا عَلَى النَّاسِ بِثَلَاثٍ: جُعِلَتْ صُفُوفُنَا كَصُفُوفِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ، وَجُعِلَتْ لَنَا الْأَرْضُ كُلُّهَا مَسْجِدًا، وَجُعِلَتْ تُرْبَتُهَا لَنَا طَهُورًا، إِذَا لَمْ نَجِدِ الْمَاءَ۔ (رواہ مسلم عن حذيفة :٥٢٢)
We have been made to excel (other) people in three (things): Our rows have been made like the rows of the angels and the whole earth has been made a mosque for us, and its dust has been made a purifier for us in case water is not available. (EQ 8299)
At times a person is unable to use water on account of it being not present at the place, or because of the person suffering from some disease. For that situation, the provision of Tayammum has been made in the Shari'ah. The person should then perform Tayammum in place of Ablution or Bathing so that he is not deprived of the blessing of performing worships which are not valid without them, like Saläh which is the greatest of all worships.
The literal meaning of the Arabic word At Tayammum is making an intention.
In Shari'ah, At Tayammum is the method of obtaining Purification through soil intentionally and it consists of wiping the face and the two arms including elbows with a pure earthy substance[5].

Prerequisites for validity of Tayammum

Tayammum is valid only when these eight prerequisites are present:
·         Intention: Tayammum is invalid without intention. The intention for the Tayammum which makes a Saläh valid should be for one of the following three things:
·         The person should intend to purify himself from de jure Filth. It is not necessary to specify the de jure Filth while making the intention.
·         He should intend to make Saläh permissible for himself.
·         He should intend a worship done on purpose which is not valid without Purification, like Saläh and Prostration for Qurän recitation.
·         If he performs Tayammum with the intention of touching a copy of the holy Qurän, it will not be valid for him to perform Saläh with this Tayammum as touching a copy of the holy Book is not a worship done on purpose. The worship done on purpose is recitation of the holy Qurän.
·         Likewise, if he performs Tayammum with the purpose of calling Azän or Iqämah[6], it will not ve valid for him to perform Saläh with this Tayammum as Azän and Iqämah are not in essence worships done on purpose.
·         Similarly, if the person performs Tayammum intending to recite the holy Qurän when he is in a state of minor de jure filth, it will not be valid for him to offer Saläh with this Tayammum because though Quran-recitation is a worship done on purpose, it is valid without Ablution.
·         He is faced with an excusable difficulty which makes Tayammum permissible.

Examples of excusable difficulties which make Tayammum permissible:

·         He should be away from water by a mile or more.
·         It should be overwhelmingly probable to him or an expert Muslim doctor should have informed him that if he uses water, he will fall sick, his sickness will aggravate or his healing will be delayed.
·         It should be overwhelmingly probable to him that the use of cold water would be lethal for him.[7]
·         Water is in low quantity and it is feared that either he or someone else would suffer from thirst if he uses water for Tayammum.
·         No such device is available with which water can be extracted like bucket and rope.
·         He fears an enemy lying between him and the water, no matter whether the enemy is a human being or a carnivore.
·         It appears overwhelmingly probable to him that if he engages in Ablution, he will miss Ïd Saläh or funeral Saläh, as these Salähs cannot be performed later.
·         But, if it appears overwhelmingly probable to him that on engaging in Ablution, the time for Saläh would be over, or he would miss Friday Saläh, then Tayammum would not be permissible for him. He will have to do Ablution and late-perform the obligatory Saläh or perform Zuhr in place of Friday Saläh.
·         Tayammum should be done with a Pure earthy substance like clay-lump, stone and thick dust. Tayammum is not permissible with wood, silver or gold.
·         He should wipe his entire face and arms including the elbows.
·         He should apply his entire hand or major part of his hand for this wiping.
·         Thus, if he wipes with two fingers and goes on repeating till he has wiped over the entire face and arms, his Tayammum would be invalid.
·         He should wipe by beating the inner palms over the earthy substance twice.
·         If he beats his inner palms twice over the same place on the earthy substance, it is permissible.
·         Similarly, if soil or dust falls upon his body and he wipes the relevant organs with the intention of Tayammum, it will be valid.
·         There should be no substance acting as an obstruction between his wiping palms and the skin of arms and face, like wax or grease. Removing these things is necessary before wiping otherwise Tayammum will be invalid.
·         No such thing should occur during Tayammum which invalidates it like menstruation, postnatal discharge or de jure Filth.
·         If a woman performs Tayammum during the menstrual period or the period of postnatal discharge, it will be invalid.
·         Similarly, if a person performs Tayammum in a state of ongoing de jure Filth, the Tayammum will be invalid.

Essentials of Tayammum

There are only two essentials of Tayammum:
·         Wiping the entire face
·         Wiping both the arms from the finger-tips to the elbows inclusive

Traditions of Tayammum

The following are Traditions in Tayammum:
·         Reciting Bismilläh-ir Raḧmän-ir Raḧïm[8] (بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ)
·         Following the order: He should first wipe the face, then his right arm followed by his left arm.
·         There should be no break between wiping the face and the arms owing to an extraneous act.
·         While beating the palms over a clay-lump, he should move the hands forward and then backward.
·         Dusting off the palms after raising it from the clay-lump
·         He should space his fingers when placing the palms over the clay-lump.

Method of Tayammum

 A person who intends to perform Tayammum should roll up his garments from his arms and say Bismilläh-ir Raḧmän-ir Raḧïm (بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ) with the intention of making Saläh permissible. He should place the inner part of his palms over a Pure clay-lump keeping his fingers separate. He should move his palms forward and then backward over the clay-lump, then raise them and dust them off. He should now wipe his face with them. Again, he should place the inner parts of his palms over the clay-lump like the first time. He should then wipe his right arm from finger tips to the elbow inclusive with his entire left palm. Similarly, he should wipe his left arm including the elbow with his right palm. He has now completed his Tayammum and can now perform any number of obligatory and non-obligatory Salähs with this Tayammum.

Invalidators of Tayammum

1.       Anything that invalidates Ablution invalidates Tayammum as well.
2.       Ability to use water and end of the excusable difficulty that had made Tayammum permissible for him like absence of water, fear of an enemy, fear of a disease, etc.

Other rulings related to Tayammum

·         If a person performs Tayammum for performing funeral Saläh or Prostration of Qurän recitation, it is valid for him to perform any kind of Saläh with that Tayammum.
·         If a person performs Tayammum with the purpose of entering a mosque, it is not permissible for him to perform Saläh with that Tayammum.
·         If a person performs Tayammum with the purpose of visiting graves or for burying a dead body, it is not permissible for him to perform Saläh with that Tayammum.
·         If a person expects that he will be able to find water before the end of the time of the current Saläh, it is desirable for him to delay Tayammum till he nears the end of time.
·         If a person has been promised water by somebody, then it is compulsory for him to delay Tayammum.
·         If a person has a little water and he needs to knead flour, he should knead the flour and perform Tayammum for Saläh.
·         If a person has a little water and he needs to cook gravy, he should perform ablution with the water instead of cooking the gravy.
·         It is compulsory for him to request his companion for water who has some if it is a place where people are not miserly regarding water.
·         If it is a place where people are miserly regarding water, it is not compulsory for him to request another person for water.
·         It is permissible to  perform Tayammum before the time of Saläh begins if he is not in the category of an excusable person.
·         If a person’s hands and feet have been cut off and his face is injured, he will perform Saläh without Ablution or Tayammum.
·         If half or majority of the organs of Ablution are injured, he will perform Tayammum.
·         If majority of his Ablution organs are healthy, he will perform Ablution and wipe the injured organ.

Wiping thick socks

Alläh said:
يُرِيْدُ اللّٰهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيْدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ  (القرآن ٢٨٥:٢)
Alläh intends (to provide) ease for you and does not intend (to create) hardship for you.
Alläh’s Prophet's hadïth:
عَنْ خُزَيْمَةَ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنِ المَسْحِ عَلَى الخُفَّيْنِ؟ فَقَالَ: «لِلْمُسَافِرِ ثَلَاثَةٌ، وَلِلْمُقِيمِ يَوْمٌ»  (سنن الترمذي: ٩٥)
Khuzaymah ibn Thabit  رضي الله عنه reported that the Prophet was asked about wiping over socks. He said, "It is three days for a traveler and one day for a resident." (EQ: 25792)
The Shari’ah has permitted wiping thick socks instead of washing the feet during Ablution as a convenience for the people.

Prerequisites for validity of wiping thick socks

Wiping thick socks is valid when the following prerequisites are met:
1.       The person should have worn the thick socks in a state of de jure Purity.
If he put on thick socks after washing his feet before completing Ablution, then wiping them later will be permissible only if he completed his Ablution on this occasion before any de jure Filth came up.
2.       The thick socks should cover the ankles.
3.       Each of the thick socks should be free of hole of the size of three smallest toes or larger.
4.       The thick socks should hold on to the legs without a need of tying[9].
5.       They should prevent outside water from percolating to the feet.
6.       It should be possible to take consecutive steps wearing them[10].

Mandatory acts and Traditions of wiping

The mandatory amount of wiping is the amount wiped by the three smallest fingers of a hand over the top front part of each foot.
The Tradition in wiping is to wipe with his fingers held apart longitudinally from the tip of toes to the shank.

Period of validity of wiping the socks

Period of resident: Period of permissibility of wiping socks for resident is one day and night[11].
Period of traveler: Period of permissibility of wiping socks for traveler is three days and nights[12].
The period of permissibility starts from the time of onset of Filth, not from the time of wearing the thick socks.
If a traveler wipes his thick socks, then starts traveling before completing the period of resident, he will complete the period of traveler.
If a traveler becomes resident after completing the 24-hour period, his period of permissibility ends forthwith.
But if the traveler became resident before completing the 24-hour period, he can complete the remaining part of the 24-hour period.

Invalidators for wiping thick socks

1.       Anything that invalidates Ablution also invalidates wiping thick socks.
2.       The Purity attained by wiping thick socks is invalidated by taking off a sock.
3.       If major part of a foot comes out to the shank portion of the thick sock, the wiping is invalidated.
4.       Wiping is invalidated at the completion of the period of permissibility.
5.       Wiping is invalidated if water reaches major part of either of the two feet inside thick socks.
Wiping turban, cap or veil instead of wiping the head during Ablution is not permissible.
Similarly, wiping the gloves instead of washing the hands during Ablution is not permissible.

Wiping wound-dressing and splint

Alläh said:
هُوَ اجْتَبٰىكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّيْنِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ    (القرآن ٧٨:٢٢)
He has chosen you and did not impose any hardship on you in the religion.
If an organ is injured, wound-dressing is applied on it and the person can neither wash nor wipe the organ directly, he will wipe the major part of the dressing from top. He will continue wiping till the wound is healed.
Putting on the dressing in a state of de jure Purity is not a prerequisite.
Similarly, if an organ breaks and a splint or bandage has been placed over it, he will wipe the splint till the wound heals.
Putting on the splint or bandage in a state of de jure Purity is not a prerequisite.
It is permissible to wipe the splint of one of the feet and wash the other.
Wiping the bandage will not be invalidated if the bandage falls off before the wound has healed.
Replacing the bandage is will not necessitate repetition of wiping over it.
However, it is preferable to repeat wiping on the new bandage after replacement.
If a person suffers from sore eyes and an expert Muslim physician forbids him from washing his eyes, it will be permissible for him to wipe them.
Intention is not a prerequisite for wiping thick socks, bandage or head. Intention is a prerequisite only for Tayammum.

[1] بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ (See footnote 32.)
[2] Ḧaj-performer
[3] Lailatul Qadr or the night of Power is a blessed night in the month of Ramaz̄än which usually occurs on one of the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramaz̄än.
[4] T̈awäf-uz̈ Z̈iyärah
[5] Earthy substance is anything that originates from the earth and belongs to the category of earth, like soil, stone, dust.
[6] Azän = Saläh-call, Iqämah = Saläh-start-call
[7] Moreover, he should be unable to obtain warm water.
[8] In the name of Alläh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
[9] Or using rubber bands, as is the case with the thin socks prevalent in our times.
[10] They should not fall off while walking.
[11] 24 hours.
[12] 72 hours.

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